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Taxonomic study of polymorphic basidiomycetous fungi Sirobasidium and Sirotrema: Sirobasidium apiculatum sp. nov., Phaeotremella translucens comb. nov. and rediscovery of Sirobasidium japonicum in Japan

Species in the genera Sirobasidium and Sirotrema (Tremellales, Tremellomycetes, Agaricomycotina, Basidiomycota) have been described based solely on the morphology of teleomorph, and many of them lack both isolates of anamorphic yeast state and nucleotide sequence data. Strains of Sirotrema translucens and Sirobasidium japonicum were established for the first time from basidiocarps collected in Japan. Also, an undescribed species in the genus Sirobasidium was isolated. Sirobasidium sp. was characterized by its apiculate epibasidia and 2-celled basidia divided by a longitudinal septum, which is a unique combination of characteristics in the genus. Although the phylogenetic placement of Sb. japonicum within the Tremellales was not resolved in our analysis, Sirobasidium sp. formed a well-supported monophyletic clade with Sb. magnum and Fibulobasidium spp., and Sirotrema translucens was located in the genus Phaeotremella. Mating experiments using single-basidiospore strains showed that Sb. japonicum produced basidia, epibasidia, and basidiospores on a nutrient-poor medium, and the life cycle was successfully completed in controlled conditions. In conclusion, we propose Sirobasidium apiculatum sp. nov. and Phaeotremella translucens comb. nov.